- 1976: MD/PhD, pharmacology, Washington University, St. Louis
- 1976 - 1977: Postdoctoral fellow, neurochemistry, Washington University, St. Louis
- 1977 - 1978: Intern and resident, pathology, Washington University
- 1978 - 1979: National Research Service Award, National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke, Washington University
- 1979 - 1980: Resident, neuropathology, Washington University
- 1981: American Board of Pathology, Anatomic Pathology
- 1981: American Board of Pathology, Neuropathology
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